Archives of Head and Neck Surgery
Archives of Head and Neck Surgery
Case Report Miscellaneous

Extramedullary hematopoiesis of the middle ear

Vanessa Ribeiro Orlando, Marcelo Castro Alves de Sousa, Nicodemos José Alves de Sousa

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Extramedullary hematopoiesis is characterized by the production of blood at sites outside the bone marrow that occurs due to an increased demand of the hematopoietic system as a consequence of chronic anemia associated with ineffective bone marrow response. Theoretically, any organ may be involved in extramedullary hematopoiesis. In this case report, a patient with sickle cell anemia developed an extremely rare presentation of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the middle ear. Therefore, extramedullary hematopoiesis should be included as a differential diagnosis of middle ear masses in patients with chronic anemia.


anemia, sickle cell; ear, middle; hematopoiesis; hematopoiesis, extramedullary; hemoglobin sickle cell disease.


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