Anatomy of the anterior jugular veins: anatomical study of 30 cadavers
Flávio Carneiro Hojaij, Lesley Mirian de Paula Santos, Raquel Ajub Moyses, Bruna Dos Santos Souza, Flávia Emi Akamatsu, Bruna Brasil Carneiro Costa, Lucas Albuquerque Chinelatto, Alfredo Luiz Jacomo
Introduction: Human anatomy is essential for both clinical and surgical practice. Although the anterior jugular veins (AJVs) are of great importance in many surgeries, there are few studies addressing the anatomic variations of these vessels. This study highlights the venous drainage of the head and neck and the importance of anatomical variations in the AJVs. Objective: To observe and describe the anatomy of the jugular veins and evaluate whether there are patterns influenced by anthropometric factors or comorbidities. Methods: Neck dissections were performed on 30 cadavers. The anatomical characteristics of the AJVs were described considering diameter, midline distance, anastomosis, and presence of the jugular venous arch. Results: Cadavers of 14 women and 16 men were dissected. Ninety percent (90%) of the jugular veins had a rectilinear path and 37% presented anastomosis: H-shaped (63.7%),N-shaped (27.3% ), and Y-shaped (9%). In relation to the number of veins, 20% of the cadavers had only one AJV, 63.3% had two, 10% had three, and 6.7% presented a total of four. Mean distance between jugular veins was 12 mm, and most veins (60%) had a diameter <5 mm. There was no statistically significant correlation between anatomical variations and anthropometric factors. Conclusion: AJVs were always present in the dissected cadavers, and the configuration most commonly found was two veins, each <5 mm in diameter. They were less than 10 mm away from the cervical midline and, when they presented anastomosis, it was H-shaped in most cases.
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